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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 42-47

Clinical profile of children with sickle cell anaemia in Nasarawa State, Nigeria: A five – year review

1 Department of Public Health, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nigeria
2 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Federal University, Lafia, Nigeria
3 Department of Paediatrics, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Surajudeen Oyeleke Bello
Department of Paediatrics, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmwa.jmwa_16_22

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BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a chronic multi-systemic condition characterized by haemoglobin polymerization leading to erythrocytes rigidity, frequent haemolysis and vaso- occlusion. It is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of the disease varied from one location to the other. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: This study determined the prevalence in Nasarawa state, the commonest crisis and the risk factors / complications of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based study of sickle cell anaemic patients seen between January 1st of 2013 to the December 31st of 2018. Hospital records, emergency units register and patients' folders served as the source of the secondary data. Analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Data was presented in tables, with categorical variables in frequencies and percentages while the continuous variables were presented as mean and stand deviation. RESULTS: There are slightly more males than females with a ratio of 1.2:0.8. The mean age of diagnosing SCA was 9.7±6.6 years, with 55.7% of cases aged between 5 – 15 years. The prevalence of SCA in Nasarawa state was 0.02%. Two third of reasons for hospital presentation by sickle cell anaemic patients are due to vaso-occlusive crisis. About one in every five presents with deepening jaundice suggestive of hyperhemolytic crisis. Cellulitis and malaria were the commonest triggers leading to hospital admission in this study. Vaso-occlusive crisis warranting admission, while about a third had received blood transfusion at least once. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of sickle cell anaemia is low in Nasarawa State. Vaso-occlusive crisis is the commonest acute manifestation at admission. Cellulitis and malaria are the leading triggers of such cases warranting hospital admission. Keywords:

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