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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2022
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-28

Online since Thursday, August 25, 2022

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Clinico-pathological evaluation of breast cancer in a Nigerian tertiary care center p. 1
Obiora Jude Uchendu, Ofunre Ozolua Eboreime
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is a major public health concern globally. In Nigeria, it is the most common cancer in females and is often diagnosed at an advanced stage as an aggressive disease. OBJECTIVE: The study hopes to assess the clinical and morphologic features of BC specimens in Delta State University Teaching Hospital DELSUTH, Nigeria. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study at the Pathology department of a DELSUTH, from January 1, 2014 to March 30, 2020. The age, gender, laterality, histological diagnosis, tumor grade, and year of diagnosis of these BC were analyzed with Microsoft Excel spreadsheet 2007 and presented in tables and figures. RESULTS: The study comprised 237 BC patients, accounting for 35.5% of total cancer and consisting of 6 (2.5%) males and 231 (97.5%) females with a mean age of 48.21 years. The age group 30–59 years accounted for 80.2% of the cases. The annual incidence rose to a peak in 2019. Bilateral, right breast, and left breast cancer accounted for 6 (3%), 109 (46%), and 122 (51%) cases respectively. Most cases were invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) (89.9%). Well-differentiate (12.2%), moderately differentiated (19.0%) and poorly differentiated (68.8%) cancer accounted for 12.2%, 19% and 68.8% of the cases respectively. CONCLUSION: BC constitutes a serious growing but poorly addressed health burden affecting mainly Nigerian young and middle-aged women. Most cases are IDC, and Grade III tumors. There is a need to address the gap in prevention, early diagnosis and quality management of BC in developing countries.
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Drug abuse and intimate partner violence in Edo State, Nigeria p. 8
Tijani Idris Ahmad Oseni, Benjamin Efi Aweh, Egbe Enobakhare, Isaac Osahogie Edeawe, Abudusalami B Lawal, Omowumi Adenike Ijika
CONTEXT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent among substance abusers globally. Cases of IPV and substance abuse have been on the increase in Edo State and Nigeria. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between drug abuse and IPV in Edo State. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study of 1227 systematically selected respondents from across the three senatorial districts of Edo State, Nigeria was conducted. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The Substance Use Brief Screen, Extended Hurt, Insult, Threaten, Scream (E-HITS), and the modified E-HITS questionnaires were used to assess the prevalence and pattern of drug abuse, IPV, and perpetration of IPV, respectively. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data were analyzed with epi info RESULTS: The prevalence of drug abuse among respondents was found to be 27.1%. Drug abusers were mostly males (odds ratio [OR] = 1.692, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.312–2.182); unmarried (OR = 1.353, 95% CI: 1.056–1.749) and resided in the northern part of the state (OR = 1.689, 95% CI: 1.238–2.311). Drug abusers were more likely to perpetrate IPV (OR = 1.433, 95% CI 1.113–1.845) and be victims of IPV (OR = 1.827, 95% CI: 1.414–2.359) compared to nondrug abusers. CONCLUSIONS: IPV was significantly higher among substance abusers who were males, unmarried, with low levels of education and income. They were also mostly from the northern part of the state. There is a need for relevant stakeholders to institute measures that will reduce the high prevalence of drug abuse among residents in Edo State, particularly in Edo North and Nigeria to reduce IPV and improve family functionality.
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High burden of female sexual dysfunction: An online survey of Nigerian women p. 15
Ejiroghene Martha Umuerri, Christiana Omotola Ayandele
INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is common but underresearched in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to ascertain the prevalence and associated risk factors of FSD in Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational online survey of sexually active Nigerian women aged ≥18 years using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The FSFI assessed six domains: arousal, desire, lubrication, orgasm, pain, and satisfaction. Respondents with an FSFI score of <26.6 had FSD. Ethical approval was duly obtained, and the study was conducted as per Helsinki Declaration. RESULTS: Of the 388 women that participated in the survey, 72.4% were <40 years old, 59.3% were married, 9.3% and 1.8% reported hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and 44.6% and 5.2% consumed alcohol and smoked tobacco. The mean (±standard deviation) FSFI score was 25.4 (±6.76). A total of 187 (46.7%) of the respondents had scores <26.6. Sexual domain disorders observed were desire (35, 9.0%), lubrication (49, 12.6%), satisfaction (52, 13.4%), arousal (58, 14.9%), orgasm (90, 23.2%), and pain (101, 26.0%). Respondents with sexual dysfunction were predominantly aged 50–59 years (77.8%), cohabiting (66.7%), had postgraduate education (52.6%), unemployed (62.2%), and rural dwellers (56.1%). Hypertension (57.3%), diabetes mellitus (28.6%), alcohol consumption (38.2%), and tobacco smoking (70.0%) were reported among respondents with sexual dysfunction. Respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and sexual dysfunction were not significantly associated. Tobacco smoking (P = 0.038) and alcohol consumption (P < 0.001) were associated with sexual dysfunction.
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Pattern of refractive errors amongst children attending a new teaching hospital in Kaduna, Nigeria: A 2-year review p. 21
Stanley Bulus Sano, Sarki Pamela Diyale, Bakut Amos Silas, Mahmoud Zakiya
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of presentation of refractive errors (REs) amongst children 5–16 years who attended the eye clinic of a tertiary hospital over a 2-year period. SETTING: The outpatient unit of the Department of Ophthalmology, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study of children aged 5–16 years, who presented to our facility between January 2017 and December 2018 with various ocular complaints. Those with presenting visual acuity <6/9 were included in the study. Demographic data were retrieved from patient records. The visual acuity, ocular complaints, RE, general ocular examination and prior history of spectacles use were also extracted from the records. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 18. RESULTS: A total number of 14,004 patients of all ages where seen in outpatients Department of Ophthalmology Clinic. Five thousand six hundred and nine were children aged 5–16 years. Seven per cent of the patients (392) had REs, while 93% (5217) had no RE. The mean age was 10.7 years and with a male-to-female ratio of 1.2:1. Two hundred and thirty patients were in the 11–16 years (58.6%), while 162 (41.4%) belonged to the 5–10 years age group. Myopia accounted for 212 (54%), while mixed astigmatism only 9 (2%). Hyperopia 100 (27%), simple myopic astigmatism 40 (10%), compound myopic astigmatism 18 (4%) and compound hyperopic astigmatism 13 (3%) made up the other REs. Asthenopic symptoms accounted for 78% of all presenting ocular symptoms and were common amongst those with myopia and astigmatism, while 22% had no symptoms. Most of the REs were of mild-to-moderate grade based on their spherical equivalent. CONCLUSION: RE was identified as a problem amongst children 5–16 years with myopia more common. Most cases of RE in this study were myopia and associated with ocular complaints which were mostly asthenopic symptoms. The majority of the REs were mild to moderate.
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Extensive coital laceration at a sexual debut in a teenager presenting at the John F. Kennedy Maternity Center, Liberia p. 26
Tina Anandani-Lalwani, Williams Obukohwo Odunvbun, Billy C Johnson, Daniel G Urey
We report a case of extensive coital laceration of the posterior vaginal fornix, extending to the lateral wall of the vagina in an 18-year-old at coitarche. The patient presented at the emergency department about 10 h after the coital trauma, via a verbal referral from a community health facility where a suspicion of criminal abortion was made, without examination. The patient was concerned about the coital laceration being publicly disclosed, and this resulted in her initial reluctance to divulge information about the incidence. The history at presentation was vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pains following coital trauma by her boyfriend. Her haemoglobin was 6 g/dl, and shock index was 1.8. She was resuscitated with intravenous fluids and transfused with 3 units of whole blood. Vaginal examination revealed a 4–5 cm posterior fornix laceration which was repaired with vicryl-1 in the theatre. The patient was offered emergency contraception with levonorgestrel and placed on post-exposure prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus. She was discharged home on the 3rd day with haemoglobin of 9.5 g/dl after counselling. The need to establish trust, confidentiality and a high index of suspicion by healthcare providers especially in young persons with coital injury cannot be overstated as this will facilitate early diagnosis and reduce complications.
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